By Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini
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Extra info for 4D Fetal Echocardiography
The method was innovated in Kretztechnik of Austria which is now a subsidiary of GE Healthcare. This approach is currently available in various ultrasound devices and is used to produce surface rendered images of the fetus (Figure ). There are numerous reports on fetal echocardiography using reconstructed approach with STIC. However, this approach does not offer true real time 3D cardiac imaging and has several limitations including high susceptibility to motion artifacts. Two dimensional phased array technology for true RT3D ultrasound imaging was developed at the Duke University by von Ramm and associates .
Modified with permission from reference 4) Real Time Three Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography Using Four Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography 35 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HEART An additional innovative aspect of the image analytic software is the ability to perform dynamic cardiac quantification such as the ventricular volume through the cardiac cycle and the ejection fraction. The distinct advantage of RT3D approach over traditional echocardiography is that it is not subject to assumptions regarding the volume and the shape.
18] Rychik J, Ayres N, Cuneo B, et al. American Society of Echocardiography guidelines and standards for performance of the fetal echocardiogram. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004; 17: 803–10.  Wood D, Respondek-Liberska M, Puerto B, Weiner S Perinatal echocardiography: protocols for evaluating the fetal and neonatal heart. World Association of Perinatal Medicine Ultrasonography Working Group. J Perinat Med. 2009; 37(1): 511.  Cardiac screening examination of the fetus: guidelines for performing the 'basic' and 'extended basic' cardiac scan.
4D Fetal Echocardiography by Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini