By Erik Dahlman
In keeping with the bestseller "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for cellular broadband" and reflecting the continuing good fortune of LTE in the course of the global, this ebook specializes in LTE with complete updates together with LTE-Advanced to supply a whole photo of the LTE process. review and particular causes are given for the newest LTE criteria for radio interface structure, the actual layer, entry approaches, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF features, and approach functionality. Key applied sciences provided contain multi-carrier transmission, complex single-carrier transmission, complicated receivers, OFDM, MIMO and adaptive antenna options, complicated radio source administration and protocols, and assorted radio community architectures. Their function and use within the context of cellular broadband entry normally is defined. either a high-level assessment and extra unique step by step reasons of the LTE/LTE-Advanced implementation are given. an summary of different similar structures comparable to GSM/EDGE, HSPA, CDMA2000, and WIMAX can also be supplied. This ebook is a 'must-have' source for engineers and different pros within the telecommunications undefined, operating with mobile or instant broadband applied sciences, giving an realizing of the way to make use of the recent expertise to be able to remain prior to the contest. The authors of the ebook all paintings at Ericsson examine and feature been deeply fascinated by 3G and 4G improvement and standardisation because the early days of 3G examine. they're top specialists within the box and are this day nonetheless actively contributing to the standardisation of LTE inside 3GPP. Includes complete info of the most recent additions to the LTE Radio entry criteria and applied sciences as much as and together with 3GPP liberate 10Clear motives of the function of the underlying applied sciences for LTE, together with OFDM and MIMO complete insurance of LTE-Advanced, together with LTE provider aggregation, prolonged multi-antenna transmission, relaying performance and heterogeneous deploymentsLTE radio interface structure, actual layer, entry strategies, MBMS, RF features and process functionality lined intimately
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Additional resources for 4G: LTE LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband
With these assumptions, the time-discrete OFDM signal can be expressed as:3 xn x(nTs ) Nc 1 ∑ ak e j 2πk∆fnT Nc 1 N 1 k 0 k 0 ∑ ak e j 2πkn/N ∑ ak′ e j 2πkn/N , s k 0 where ak′ ak 0 0 Nc k k Nc . 5) Thus, the sequence xn, or, in other words, the sampled OFDM signal, is the size-N Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) of the block of modulation symbols a0 , a1 , …, aN c Ϫ1 extended with zeros to length N. 6. In particular, by selecting the IDFT size N equal to 2m for some integer m, the OFDM modulation can be implemented by means of implementationefficient radix-2 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) processing.
As a consequence, the power-amplifier efficiency will be reduced, leading to increased power consumption. In addition, there will be a negative impact on the power-amplifier cost. Alternatively, the average transmit power must be reduced, implying a reduced range for a given data rate. High power-amplifier efficiency is especially important for the terminal – that is, in the uplink direction – due to the importance of low mobile-terminal power consumption and cost. For the base station, high power-amplifier efficiency, although far from irrelevant, is still somewhat less important.
13b. Thus, the individual modulation symbols will typically not experience any substantial frequency diversity even if the channel is highly frequency selective over the overall OFDM transmission bandwidth. As a consequence, the basic error-rate performance of OFDM transmission over a frequency-selective channel is relatively poor and especially much worse than the basic error rate in the case of a single wideband carrier. However, in practice channel coding is used in most cases of digital communication and especially in mobile communication.
4G: LTE LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband by Erik Dahlman