By ACI Committee 305
Environmental components, similar to excessive ambient temperature, low humidity, excessive wind, or either low humidity and excessive wind, have an effect on concrete homes and the development operations of combining, transporting, and putting of the concrete fabrics. This advisor presents measures that may be taken to reduce the bad results of those environmental components and decrease the opportunity of severe problems.
This advisor defines scorching climate, discusses strength difficulties, and offers practices meant to lessen them. those practices contain deciding upon fabrics and proportions, precooling elements, and batching. different subject matters mentioned comprise size of haul, attention of concrete temperature as positioned, amenities for dealing with concrete on the web site, and, in the course of the early curing interval, putting and curing strategies, and acceptable checking out and inspection approaches in sizzling climatic conditions. The fabrics, strategies, quality controls measures, and inspections defined during this record could be demonstrated, monitored, or played as appropriate basically through participants protecting the ideal ACI certifications or similar.
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Extra info for ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting
Let us investigate how a homogeneous atmosphere would look like. 18) which is called the auto-convective lapse rate. In the homogeneous atmosphere, temperature decreases with height about six times faster than observed in the troposphere. As will be shown in Sect. 10, such an atmospheric stratification would be unstable. 18 The assumption of constant density is a far better approximation for the ocean than the atmosphere because of the sharp upper boundary and because the density of seawater is independent of pressure.
E. mixing affects all gases independent of their molecular weight. Diffusion by random molecular motions leads to an atmosphere in which the mean molecular weight of the gas mixture decreases gradually with height. Consequently, each constituent behaves as if it exists alone. Thus, the density of each gas decreases exponentially with height and each gas has its own scale height (Sect. 3), which is inversely proportional to the molecular weight. From the Earth’s surface to an altitude of about 100 km mixing predominates.
Cambridge University Press, New York, 237pp Angevine WM, Ecklund WL (1994) Errors in radio acoustic sounding of temperature. J Atmos Ocean Technol 11:837–842 Bergmann-Schäffer (1997) Lehrbuch der Experimental Physik Erde und Planeten. In: Raith W (ed) de Gruyter, Berlin, 727pp Broeckner WS (1997) Mountain glaciers: recorders of atmospheric water vapor content. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 11:589–597 Canfield DE (2014) Oxygen – a four billion year history. Princeton University Press, Princeton/ Oxford, 196pp Foken T (2014) Micrometeorology (trans: Nappo CJ).
ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting by ACI Committee 305