By Susan L. Cutter
Barrier islands, Flood plains, Earthquake faults: occasionally the surroundings poses threats to our health, but many folks proceed to decide on to dwell in dicy or harmful locations. And on most sensible of the knowns are the opposite, extra hidden dangers concerning environmental illness that pose both severe threats to our healthiness and health. yet the place are those locations and what forms of risks are chanced on there? "American Hazardscapes" examines the hazards linked to residing and possessing estate in diversified areas around the usa, providing twin views: that of the geographer and that of the social technological know-how dangers researcher. The ebook summarizes what we already find out about local styles of probability occasions and losses in the course of the prior 3 a long time and is going additional to make clear the character of the occasions themselves and their influence on society. Written for the moving citizen and the coverage maker alike, "American Hazardscapes" provides a neighborhood ecology of disaster-prone or disaster-resistant states. It additionally bargains strategies on what neighborhood, kingdom, and federal managers have to do to satisfy the problem of lowering danger losses within the subsequent century.
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Additional resources for American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters)
One of the first decisions a cartographer makes is to determine how much of the Earth’s surface is to be represented on the map. This is known as map scale; it is the relationship between the length of a feature on a map and the length of the actual feature on the Earth. Small-scale maps (such as a map of the world) cover a large proportion of the Earth’s surface, but offer very little detail about it other than broad generalizations about patterns. Larger-scale maps are just the opposite—they portray a smaller area but with greater detail.
For example, the data needed for postevent emergency response (rescue and relief) are quite 37 38 American Hazardscapes different from the information we need for longer-term recovery and mitigation efforts. Similarly, the geographic extent of our data varies depending on the nature of the event. Temporal Considerations In hazards applications, we are concerned with when the data were collected, the time interval required for the collection, the lag time between when the data were collected and when we can use them, and finally, how frequently new data are collected.
For example, suppose we wanted to predict the geographic distribution of anticipated damage associated with a future hurricane for all major metropolitan areas in the United States. To do this, we would construct a building loss-wind speed functional statistical relationship based on a sample of individual homes in a coastal area. Next, we would forecast the spatial distribution of total future losses, using building characteristics within census tracts. At what scale are we operating? It might be most appropriate to say that the damage-wind speed estimate is at the individual building scale (our observational unit) but the forecast of future losses is at the census tract scale (our collection/ reporting unit).
American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters) by Susan L. Cutter