By Kurt Sköld and David L. Price (Eds.)
Sköld e.K., cost D.L. (eds.) Neutron scattering (AP, 1986-1987)(ISBN 0124759653)
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PRICE AND KURT SKZ)LD than by specific scientific areas to which they are being applied. In fact, each of these applications covers a variety of scientific areas. However, the theoretical derivation of the cross sections and the experimental technique are rather similar within each of these groups. It is therefore convenient to treat these applications under their own headings. 1. 3,the discussion was confined to cases for which the particles occupy well-defined equilibrium positions. For such systems the scattering is conveniently discussed in terms of inelastic scattering, which corresponds to exchange of energy and momentum with the thermal excitations in the solid, and elastic scattering, which corresponds to exchange of momentum with the entire solid recoiling as a rigid unit.
In the case of the liquid state, the concept of equilibrium site is no longer relevant. The particles in the liquid diffuse in a more or less continuous manner, and quasi-elastic scattering is always observed. Also, the thermal excitations are strongly damped and the quasi-elastic and the inelastic regions in the scattering function in most cases show substantial overlap. However, in certain cases, and in particular at small values of the momentum transfer, the quasi-elastic component can be isolated and used to derive distinct information about the diffusion process.
40) we may derive the elastic coherent scattering cross section (g) c . 58) is the unit-cell structurefactor for the crystal. 58) form the basis of neutron crystallography, covered in Chapter 5. 59) We note that in Eq. 55) it is assumed that a given d is at the identical position relative to the center in each unit cell. If in fact there is a random variation in the values of d through the crystal, translational invariance is lost and one reverts to the general expression in Eq. (1 S2). 3). For systems with no long-range order, like glasses and other amorphous solids, all the elastic scattering is diffuse and one must in principle know all the time-averaged atomic positions in order to calculate S,,(Q).
Neutron Scattering by Kurt Sköld and David L. Price (Eds.)